A public apology is a component of reparation as stipulated in the United Nations Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights resolution proclaiming the Basic Principles and Guidelines on the Right to a Remedy and Reparation for Victims of Gross Violations of International Human Rights Law and Serious Violations of International Humanitarian Law. It is also defined as a restorative process intended to heal and to generate forgiveness on the part of the offended party, for the improper behavior or action of the offender. The process consists in three components: acknowledgment of wrongdoing, admission of responsibility and the action of the wrongdoer to compensate damages produced.
Besides the role of healing and bringing forgiveness on the part of the offended party, public apologies have the function of restoring the health of the social interaction and “publicly acknowledging a shared commitment to some moral values”. According to Cohen(2016)"In order to restore or create moral relations among transgressors and their victims, transgressors …. need to admit their wrongdoing, commemorate or memorialize history, and, most notably, provide an apology."
- 1995, 2012, 2017: France's apology for the 1942 Vel d'Hiv Roundup, a Nazi-directed raid and mass arrest of Jews in Paris by the French police. More: Vel d'Hiv Roundup#Apology
Stephen Joseph Harper officially apologized to 80,000 former students of residential schools in Canada except Newfoundland, Brunswick and Prince Edward Island. In the 1870’s, federal government forcibly sent over 150,000 aboriginal children to residential schools as part of assimilation policy which aimed for eliminating first nation culture and language and let them learn Canadian official language both English and French. While first nation students in residential schools, they did not receive enough amount and quality of housing, food and clothing.
Stephen Harper expressed official apology as follows:
“The burden of this experience has been on your shoulders for far too long. The burden is properly ours as a Government, and as a country. There is no place in Canada for the attitudes that inspired the Indian Residential Schools system to ever prevail again. You have been working on recovering from this experience for a long time and in a very real sense, we are now joining you on this journey. The Government of Canada sincerely apologizes and asks the forgiveness of the Aboriginal peoples of this country for failing them so profoundly.
Nous le regrettons
We are sorry
- 2017: Canada's Apology,Statement of Apology on Behalf of the Government of Canada to Former Students of the Newfoundland and Labrador Residential Schools ]]
Justin Pierre James Trudeau  formally apologized to first nation student of Newfoundland and Labrador residential schools on Nov.24, 2017. Canadian government forced first nation people to send them to the residential schools for oppressing first nation language including Beothuk, Mi’kmaq, Innu-aimun, and Labrador Inuktituk and their cultures. Justin Trudeau officially admitted that there were frequent physical and sexual abuses against residential students. As a result, Trudeau government offered $50 million dollars for former students who were not included in the apology given by Stephan Harper in 2008.
- 2018: Facebook's Apology,Mark Zuckerberg apologises for Facebook's 'mistakes' over Cambridge Analytica ]]
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- 24 March – International Day for the Right to the Truth concerning Gross Human Rights Violations and for the Dignity of Victims (A/RES/65/196)
- 10 December – Human Rights Day (A/RES/423 (V))
- Reparations (transitional justice)
- Reparations for slavery
- United Nations Charter
- Universal Declaration of Human Rights
- Convention on the Rights of the Child
- International Court of Justice
- "Allocution de M. Jacques CHIRAC Président de la République prononcée lors des cérémonies commémorant la grande rafle des 16 et 17 juillet 1942 (Paris)" (PDF). www.jacqueschirac-asso (in French). 16 July 1995. Retrieved 17 July 2014.
- "Statement of apology to former students of Indian Residential Schools ;Government of Canada". Government of Canada. Retrieved 2018-04-06.
- "Prime Minister Stephen Harper's statement of apology | CBC News". CBC. Retrieved 2018-04-10.
- Branch, Government of Canada; Indian and Northern Affairs Canada; Communications. "Statement of apology to former students of Indian Residential Schools". www.aadnc-aandc.gc.ca. Retrieved 2018-04-10.
- "The Power of Canada's Apology to Omar Khadr | Human Rights Watch". Hrw.org. Retrieved 2017-07-15.
- "Statement of Apology on Behalf of the Government of Canada to Former Students of the Newfoundland and Labrador Residential Schools;Government of Canada". Government of Canada. Retrieved 2018-04-06.
- "Read Trudeau's full apology to members of the LGBTQ community". CTVNews. 2017-11-28. Retrieved 2018-04-06.
- "Language". www.heritage.nf.ca. Retrieved 2018-04-06.
- "Zuckerberg: 'I'm really sorry that this happened' - CNN Video - CNN.com;CNN.com". CNN.com. Retrieved 2018-04-06.
- "International Days | United Nations". Un.org. Retrieved 2017-07-15.
- "International Day for the Right to the Truth Concerning Gross Human Rights Violations and for the Dignity of Victims, 24 March". Un.org. Retrieved 2017-07-15.
- United Nations. "Human Rights Day 10 December : Background". Un.org. Retrieved 2017-07-15.
11. Slocum, D., Allan, A., & Allan, M. M. (2011). An emerging theory of apology. Australian Journal Of Psychology, 63(2), 83-92. doi:10.1111/j.1742-9536.2011.00013.</ref>
12. Cohen, A. I. (June 01, 2016). Corrective vs. Distributive Justice: the Case of Apologies. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice, 19, 3, 663-677.</ref>