Operation Anubis

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Operation Anubis
Part of the Catalan independence referendum, 2017 , the 2017 Spanish constitutional crisis and the 2012–present Catalan independence movement
Sony Xperia 2 201.jpg
A banner with the sentence Welcome to the Catalan republic was hung on the facade of the Catalan economic department.
Date20 September 2017 (2017-09-20)
LocationBarcelona
GoalsPrevent the 2017 Catalan referendum of independence
MethodsPolice operation
Parties to the civil conflict
Court of Instruction No. 13 of Barcelona
Monogram of the Spanish Civil Guard (Variant).svg Civil Guard (acting as judicial police)
Lead figures
Number
+10 Civil Guard agents[2]
1 judicial secretary[2]
c. 40,000 demonstrators
Casualties
Damages: 3 Nissan Patrol damaged (135,632 €)
Arrested: 14
Indictments: 16
Indictments: 2

The Operation Anubis was a police operation in Catalonia Spain, initiated on 20 September 2017 by the Civil Guard following orders of the trial court number 13 of Barcelona,[3][4][5] directed by judge Juan Antonio Ramírez Sunyer.[6] Its aim was to dismantle the framework of the Catalan independence referendum of 1 October 2017,[4] that was suspended on 6 September 2017 by the Constitutional Court of Spain as breaching the 1978 Constitution.[7][8][9] Different headquarters of the Generalitat de Catalunya were searched and 14 people were arrested, including high ranking administrative staff, and company CEO's involved in the preparation of the referendum. Simultaneously, several printing and media companies were searched looking for ballot papers and boxes.[10] More than 140 websites were shut down by the Spanish justice and police.[11]

Crowds gathered around Catalan regional ministries to support those arrested and protest against the searches.[12] About 40,000 demonstrators surrounded the Catalan economy department heeding a call made by pro-independence groups Òmnium Cultural and ANC.[3][13][14] One vehicle of the Civil Guard was damaged.[15] The Mossos recognized that there was a risk situation.[16]

Jordi Sànchez and Jordi Cuixart—leaders of ANC and Òmnium Cultural— and the Mossos d'Esquadra Major Josep Lluís Trapero Álvarez have been accused of sedition, a felony regulated by the article 544 and subsequents of the Spanish Criminal Code, for allegedly encouraging protesters to hinder the Spanish police raids to dismantle the framework of the referendum.[3][17][18] Sànchez and Cuixart have been provisionally put into jail without bail pending the investigation.[3]

Background[edit]

The investigation started due a complaint presented at the trial court number 13 of Barcelona by the political party Vox and an anonymous complainant, in response to a claim from Catalan judge and politician Santiago Vidal assuring that preparations for the referendum were underway.[19]

On 9 September, Spanish Civil Guard raided the headquarters of the weekly newspaper El Vallenc for being allegedly linked to the preparation of the independence referendum, about 200 people gathered in front of the building to support the journalists being investigated.[20] On the same day, the Civil Guard also raided the printing office Indugraf Offset in Constantí searching for ballots and material related to the Catalan referendum.[20]

Over 45,000 notifications for the polling station members were confiscated on 19 September by the Civil Guard after raiding the offices of the posting service Unipost. Hundreds of protesters practiced nonviolent resistance sitting in front of the offices in order to block the access, delaying the action of the judicial committee for hours.[21][22]

20 September[edit]

Following a judge’s orders, on the morning of 20 September 2017 several units of the Spanish Civil Guard raided 41 locations, including: the headquarters of the Vice President of Catalonia, the regional ministries of economy, foreign affairs, social affairs and family, the tax agency of Catalonia, the consortium of open administration of Catalonia, the Catalan Institute of Finance, the dotCAT Foundation, private houses of Catalan government officials and one printing company. Spanish officers claimed to have seized 9.6 million ballot papers in the raids.[23][24][15]

During these raids the Spanish Civil Guard arrested 14 people, most of them high-ranking members from the Generalitat of Catalonia, but also CEOs of private companies or just administrative staff.[25]

After hours of watching it, officers of the National Police Corps circled the headquarters of the Popular Unity Candidacy party (CUP) at 1:00pm, in Casp street, Barcelona, but were prevented from searching inside by party members and supporters due to not having a court order. The party made several calls to the citizenship to "go to protect our headquarters" and organized a sit-in protest in order to block Spanish police access to their offices which gathered thousands of people.[26][27][28] The police deployment lasted eight hours until they finally left without searching the building or arresting anyone.[29] David Fernàndez, member of CUP, defined the intend to enter their headquarters without a court order as a "flagrant crime against fundamental, civil and political rights".[30]

On the same day, the Spanish government announced that they were sending two ships to Barcelona and one to Tarragona to allocate Spanish police reinforcements deployed from other places of Spain. The first ship to arrive in Barcelona was the Rhapsody, from an Italian shipping company, followed by the MS Moby Dada, also Italian. The ship that docked in Tarragona was named GNV Azzurra. The three ships had a capacity of 6,600.[31][32] Days later, these reinforcements tried to prevent the referendum on independence, injuring over 900 voters and panic scenes that toured the televisions around the world.

Protests[edit]

Crowd in front of the Department of Economy after the arrests.

As the searches began, crowds spontaneously gathered outside the buildings being raided by the Spanish Civil Guard; namely the headquarters of the Department of Economy, in Rambla Catalunya, and the Department of External Affairs, in Via Laietana.[12][33][34]

Some minutes later, Òmnium Cultural and ANC called for a mobilization to avoid demonstrators being prosecuted given that Spanish Citizen's Security Law sets very high penalties for unauthorized demonstrations.[30][35] Civil pro-independence organizations called for "peaceful resistance" in front of buildings being searched.[36] The Mayor of Barcelona Ada Colau also called all citizens to take the streets in protest for the raids.[37] Soon after people started gathering in front of the Economy Department, crowds forced the closure of the Gran Via.[36][38] According to several sources, at some moment there were more than 40,000 people in the demonstration in front of the Catalan economy department.[14][39] In the afternoon, various volunteers offered food and water to demonstrators.[40] Several concerts were held in the junction between Rambla de Catalunya and Gran Via, like Companyia Elèctrica Dharma and Judit Neddermann as well as castells.[41][42]

Tens of thousands of pro-referendum demonstrators protested against the raids in front of the Catalan economy department. Three vehicles of the Civil Guard were vandalised.[43][44][45]

Even though the police operations were not notified in advance to the autonomous police force of Catalonia, Mossos d'Esquadra, as soon as people started gathering around the Catalan economy department, Civil Guard requested the intervention of Mossos.[13] The Civil Guard agents involved in the raid made 6 calls for help to Mossos during the day. The first request for help was at 9:14 am with the subject: "Urgent - Request for support to Mossos" with the goal to force people to move 40 meters away from the building.[30][39][13] Mossos did not intervene alleging that might cause public disorders and that the demonstration was being peaceful and authorized. Instead, ANC volunteers created a human corridor so the access to the building would not get blocked.[46] Workers of the Department of Economy hung Catalan and European Union flags in the balconies of the building as long as the raid lasted.[47] Mossos alleged they were not notified in advance about the raids so they couldn't prepare a police operation to keep demonstrators far from the building. At midday, the Civil Guard notified Mossos they would end the registries around 20.15, but later stated they would be delayed for hours due to computer problems.[30][39]

According to the court clerk, she remained trapped until midnight inside the building and had to flee by the roof, while several agents were trapped throughout the night as demonstrators shouted outside "You won't get out!" and "They shall not pass".[48][15][49][50][51][52] The solution to leave through the roof of the neighbouring building was proposed by Mossos after the court clerk rejected to use the human corridor created by the police.[16] Civil Guard stayed inside the building until the demonstration was called off and Mossos cleared the zone so they could get access to the three cars that were parked in front of the Catalan economy department.[41][53][28] Those cars were damaged by journalists in the morning and later smashed up by demonstrators.[30][16] According to the Civil Guard, the damages in the vehicles (3 Nissan Patrol) accounted for 135,632 €.[54]

Civil Guard officers left unguarded weapons and ammunition inside the cars, which were left with the doors unlocked and were later surrounded by demonstrators. The Mossos were not informed that the cars contained weapons until the afternoon, at that point, the Mossos used an helicopter to verify that no demonstrator entered inside the cars.[30][55][35] Eventually, the leaders of ANC and Òmnium, Jordi Sànchez and Jordi Cuixart, were notified there were weapons inside the cars too. At that point, ANC volunteers expanded the human corridor and left the cars inside the corridor, so demonstrators had no access to them.[30]

The presidents of Òmnium Cultural and ANC, Jordi Cuixart and Jordi Sànchez, calling off the protest on top of a vandalised Civil Guard vehicle.[56][57][41]

Jordi Sànchez and Jordi Cuixart —leaders of ANC and Òmnium Cultural— and the Mossos d'Esquadra Major Josep Lluís Trapero Álvarez have been accused of sedition, a felony regulated by the article 544 and subsequents of the Spanish Criminal Code, for allegedly encouraging protesters to hinder the Spanish police raids to dismantle the framework of the referendum.[3][17][18] Sànchez and Cuixart have been provisionally put into jail without bail pending the investigation.[3]

Besides the demonstration in Barcelona, multiple protests took place in other cities across Catalonia; including cacerolazo during the night. Several Spanish cities also organised demonstrations against the police operations.[58][59][60]

In Gran Teatre del Liceu, Barcelona an audience at the representation of Il Viaggio a Reims sang the Catalan anthem, Els Segadors, and shouted pro-Catalan independence slogans.[61]

Reactions[edit]

Dozens of Catalan organizations and entities condemned the jailing of Catalan officials and made calls to respect "democracy and freedom of speech" in Catalonia and asked all citizens to "defend Catalan institutions". Those entities included all Catalan public universities (UB, UAB, UdG, UPF, UdL, URV, UPC, UOC), the biggest Catalan workers and students unions including CCOO and UGT, sport clubs like FC Barcelona and Girona FC, more than 20 professional associations, the Confederation of Neighborhood Associations of Catalonia, NGO's like Fundipau, music festivals like Primavera Sound and cultural organizations like Fundació Antoni Tàpies.[62][63]

Carles Puigdemont, President of Catalonia, described the raids as a "de facto suspension of Catalonia's self-rule".[64] Ada Colau, Mayor of Barcelona, called the raids "a democratic scandal".[64] Xavier Domènech, from En Comú Podem expressed "all red lines have been crossed".[65] Pablo Iglesias, leader of Spanish Podemos, defined the arrested officials as "political prisoners".[65] Dimitrios Papadimoulis MEP considered the situation was a "very worrying drift" for Spain.[33] Mónica Oltra, co-spokesperson of Compromís, defined it as "forbidding acts of freedom of expression".[33]

That day, En Comú Podem, ERC and PDeCAT walked out from Spanish Congress as a protest against the police operation.[65]

21 September[edit]

On 21 September 2017, the President of Catalonia, Carles Puigdemont, publicly announced on Twitter the referendum information webpage had been re-uploaded and gave polling station information and directions. The previous webpage shut down six days after launching, after being declared illegal in court.[66][67]

Demonstration on 21 September 2017 in front of the High Court of Justice of Catalonia in support of individuals arrested by during police raids.

The Catalan National Assembly and Òmnium Cultural organised a demonstration in Passeig de Lluís Companys in front of the High Court of Justice of Catalonia calling for the release of those, while carrying signs reading "Stop dictatorship" and "We want to vote".[68] During the demonstrations several politicians and public figures spoke and asked the people to continue in permanent mobilisation to defend the institutions of Catalonia.[69][70]

On the same day, the stevedores and dockworkers of the Port of Barcelona and Port of Tarragona refused to work for the ships that housed the Spanish police after a trade union vote that morning.[71][72]

University students in some areas abandoned their classes and disrupted traffic on Avinguda Diagonal and joined demonstrations in front of the High Court of Justice of Catalonia. In a separate protest by students traffic on Gran Via, at the old building of the University of Barcelona, was disrupted.[73]

Around 150 people chanting slogans in favour of the police operation or in favour of remaining part of Spain.[74]

In front of the headquarters of the Spanish Civil Guard in Passeig de Gràcia a demonstration of 150 people shouted slogans in favour of the police operation, in favour of remaining unified with Spain, or against the independence referendum. During the demonstration there were clashes with the Mossos d'Esquadra when the protesters tried to stop the traffic.[74]

An open letter from several members of all parties in the UK parliament expressed their concern "by the measures taken by the Spanish government to prevent the referendum".[75] An additional open letter from over a hundred academics of law, human rights and related subjects from the UK and Ireland expressed the same level of concern about the fact "that the level of political repression in Catalonia is of a severity and arbitrary character not experienced since the Franco dictatorship".[75] The Regional Council of Sardinia also unanimously approved a motion on 21 September 2017 expressing solidarity with Catalonia and offering to print and store the necessary ballots for the referendum while asking the international community to intervene and ensure that Catalans could vote and decide on their self-determination.[76][77]

22 September[edit]

On Friday 22 September, Spanish State Attorney General's office filed a complaint for sedition against the leaders of Catalan National Assembly and Òmnium Cultural, Jordi Sànchez and Jordi Cuixart, accused of having played central roles in orchestrating massive protests aimed at hindering Civil Guard activity.[78][43][79] This offence can be punished with sentences of up to 15 years of prison.[80][81] The investigating judge stated that the leaders did not call for "peaceful demonstration but to the protection of Catalan officials through 'massive citizens' mobilisations"[3][48][82] and that Jordi Sànchez, on top of a vehicle, encouraged the demonstrators with expressions such as "no one goes home, it will be a long and intense night".[82] According to the judge the actions of Sànchez and Cruixat are within the scope of sedition, a felony regulated by the article 544 and subsequents of the Spanish Criminal Code:[3][18]

Conviction for sedition shall befall those who, without being included in the felony of rebellion, public and tumultuously rise up to prevent, by force or outside the legal channels, application of the laws, or any authority, official corporation or public officer from lawful exercise of the duties thereof or implementation of the resolutions thereof, or of administrative or judicial resolutions.

— Article 544 of the Spanish Criminal Code.[83]
Photo of the students occupying the historical building of the University of Barcelona.

Footage from that day, however, contradicts the version of the judge and shows that Jordi Cuixart and Jordi Sànchez climbed on top of the cars to call off the protests.[56][57][41]

Pro-referendum students from the University of Barcelona occupied the historical building of the university, which is currently used by the faculties of mathematics and philology.[84] In Girona, Tarragona and Lleida there were more student demonstrations in defence of democracy organised by the local Universities.[85]

Later that day, the trial court number 13 finally released all the remaining politicians arrested on 20 September 2017. They were freed being charged with disobedience to the Constitutional Court, perverting the course of justice and embezzlement of public funds but were not accused of sedition.[86][87] Even though they were released, due to a public prosecutor petition, they will have to appear before the court every week while the probe continues. Around 2,000 people were waiting outside and received them with slogans and chants. At 6pm a new demonstration in front of the High Court of Justice was organised to celebrate their release.[88]

Digital censorship[edit]

In the days previous to the referendum, more than 140 websites were shut down by the Spanish justice and police, including the official one from the Catalan government with information about the referendum and dozens of clones made after the first one was blocked.[11] The main site of the biggest civil organization which supports independence, Assemblea Nacional Catalana, was also blocked.[11] In some cases, only a judiciary request was sent but in some others Guardia Civil was sent to major Spanish telecom operators offices, domain providers, the dotCat Foundation and Google, in this particular case to remove an app from Google Play which included information about the polling stations.[89][90][91] This situation was defined as "censorship" by many and was denounced by Internet-related organizations from around the world including Internet Society, APC, EFF, The Tor Project and Xnet.[89][92][93][93][94][95]

Accusations of sedition[edit]

Finally, on October 16 both Jordi Cuixart and Jordi Sànchez were imprisoned accused of sedition. They are in Soto del Real Prison.[96]

Both Mossos d'Esquadra Major Josep Lluís Trapero Álvarez and Barcelona Intendant Teresa Laplana Cocera were also charged with sedition because of the role played by the regional police.[97]

Reactions[edit]

Amnesty International issued an official statement considering the charge of sedition and the preventive imprisonment "excessive" and called for their immediate release.[98][99]

On 7 March 2018, the High Commissioner of the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights reminded Spanish authorities that "pre-trial detention should be considered a measure of last resort" in reference, between others, to Jordi Cuixart and Jordi Sànchez.[100]

In July 2018, several international personalities including Jody Williams, Noam Chomsky, Angela Davis, Ben Emmerson, Bill Shipsey and Martín Caparrós joined in a video produced by Òmnium and demanded the release of the Catalan leaders.[101]

On 8 August 2018, PEN International made another statement asking Spanish authorities to release Cuixart and Sànchez and considered their detentions to be "an excessive and disproportionate restriction on their right to freedom of expression and peaceful assembly".[102][103]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Peral, María (2017-09-29). "Así dejó tirados la jefa de los Mossos, Teresa Laplana, a los guardias civiles sitiados". El Español.
  2. ^ a b "El juez ordenó a Trapero que evacuara a los guardias asediados en Barcelona". Lainformación. 2017-09-22.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h "The "Jordis" are not political prisoners – here's why". El País. 18 October 2017. Retrieved 21 October 2017.
  4. ^ a b "La Guardia Civil cercena el 1-O" (in Spanish). El Mundo. 20 September 2017. Retrieved 18 October 2017.
  5. ^ "Liberados siete de los 14 detenidos en la operación Anubis de la Guardia Civil" [Freed seven of the fourteen arrested during Civil Guard's Operation Anubis]. La Vanguardia (in Spanish). Barcelona. 21 September 2017. Retrieved 22 September 2017.
  6. ^ Sáiz Pardo, Melchor (2017-09-21). "'Operación Anubis': diez millones de papeletas y golpe a los cerebros del 1-O". Diario Sur.
  7. ^ "Recurso de inconstitucionalidad n.º 4334-2017, contra la Ley del Parlamento de Cataluña 19/2017, de 6 de septiembre, del Referéndum de Autodeterminación" (PDF) (in Spanish). Agencia Estatal Boletín Oficial del Estado. 6 September 2017. Retrieved 5 October 2017.
  8. ^ "Spain Catalonia: Court blocks independence referendum". BBC News. 8 September 2017. Retrieved 18 October 2017.
  9. ^ Duarte, Esteban (11 September 2017). "Catalan Separatists Plot Show of Force in Battle With Madrid". Bloomberg. Retrieved 13 September 2017.
  10. ^ Jones, Sam; Burgen, Stephen (21 September 2017). "Spain crisis: 'stop this radicalism and disobedience,' PM tells Catalan leaders". The Guardian. Madrid/Barcelona. Retrieved 22 September 2017.
  11. ^ a b c Solé, Alba (25 September 2017). "La Guàrdia Civil tanca el web de l'ANC i 140 més sobre l'1-O". El Nacional. Retrieved 17 April 2018.
  12. ^ a b Stone, Jon (20 September 2017). "Spanish police storm Catalan government buildings to stop independence referendum". Independent. Europe correspondent. Retrieved 22 September 2017.
  13. ^ a b c "Desvelan las 6 llamadas de auxilio de la Guardia Civil a los Mossos". Antena 3 (in Spanish). 6 October 2017. Retrieved 10 October 2017.
  14. ^ a b Mowat, Laura (21 September 2017). "Spain in CRISIS: Troops sent in as 40,000 protest over 'WAR' on Catalan independence vote". Express (newspaper). Retrieved 22 September 2017.
  15. ^ a b c Badcock, James (4 October 2017). "Catalonia's police chief faces sedition charge for 'allegedly failing to follow orders' ahead of referendum". The Telegraph. Madrid.
  16. ^ a b c "Mossos reconocen que el 20-S hubo riesgo y por ello la secretaria judicial salió por azotea". Europa Press (in Spanish). 27 February 2018. Retrieved 3 July 2018.
  17. ^ a b "Spain demands Catalonia holds a snap election to settle the independence crisis as country's third biggest bank says it is LEAVING the region". Daily Mail. 7 October 2017. Retrieved 10 October 2017.
  18. ^ a b c "¿Qué es el delito de sedición? Así lo regula el Código Penal" (in Spanish). El Periódico. 17 October 2017. Retrieved 27 October 2017.
  19. ^ Riart, Montse (9 February 2017). "Un jutge de Barcelona obre una investigació per les declaracions de Santi Vidal" [A judge from Barcelona opens an investigation because the statements of Santi Vidal]. Ara (in Catalan). Barcelona. Retrieved 22 September 2017.
  20. ^ a b "La Guàrdia Civil escorcolla la seu del setmanari El Vallenc i torna a l'empresa Constantí". VilaWeb (in Catalan). 9 September 2017. Retrieved 3 July 2018.
  21. ^ "Els Mossos desallotgen uns quants manifestants que bloquejaven la porta i el secretari judicial entra a Unipost". Diari Ara (in Catalan). 19 September 2017. Retrieved 3 July 2018.
  22. ^ "L'escorcoll a Unipost de Terrassa activa els actes de resistència". Nació Digital (in Catalan). 19 September 2017. Retrieved 3 July 2018.
  23. ^ "Catalonia referendum: Spain steps up raids to halt vote". BBC News. 20 September 2017. Retrieved 22 September 2017.
  24. ^ Strange, Hannah; Badcock, James (20 September 2017). "Anger in Barcelona after Spanish police arrest Catalan minister and 12 officials in raids over referendum". The Telegraph. Barcelona/Madrid. Retrieved 22 September 2017.
  25. ^ Martínez, Núria; Moldes, Aleix (21 September 2017). "Qui són els 14 detinguts?" [Who are the 14 detainees?]. Ara (in Catalan). Barcelona. Retrieved 23 September 2017.
  26. ^ "La Policia no aconsegueix entrar a la seu de la CUP". El Periódico (in Catalan). 20 September 2017. Retrieved 3 July 2018.
  27. ^ Esteve, Mireia (20 September 2018). "20-S: els primers detinguts del Procés". Diari Ara (in Catalan). Retrieved 20 September 2018.
  28. ^ a b "Un any del 20S, una operació policial i judicial que va marcar un abans i un després". 324 (in Catalan). 20 September 2018. Retrieved 20 September 2018.
  29. ^ "La policia espanyola abandona la seu de la CUP vuit hores després sense haver-hi pogut entrar" [The Spanish police abandons the headquarters of the Popoular Unity Candidacy after eight hours of waiting without being able to search it]. Vilaweb (in Catalan). Barcelona. 20 September 2017. Retrieved 22 September 2017.
  30. ^ a b c d e f g Roures, Jaume (11 July 2018). 20-S (Television production). Mediapro. Retrieved 3 July 2018.
  31. ^ Ortega, Maria (20 September 2017). "El govern espanyol mobilitza tres "vaixells d'estat" als ports de Barcelona i Tarragona" [The Spanish government mobilises thrhee "State ships" in the sea ports of Barcelona and Tarragona]. Ara (in Catalan). Barcelona. Retrieved 22 September 2017.
  32. ^ "Spain is shipping in police to boost forces in Catalonia...on a Loony Tunes boat". The Local. 22 September 2017. Retrieved 22 September 2017.
  33. ^ a b c "20-S : Crònica del cop contra les institucions catalanes". Diari de Girona (in Catalan). 21 September 2017. Retrieved 3 July 2018.
  34. ^ "Susanna Barreda: "Tothom sap com acabarà, però ells han d'exercir la seva defensa"". TV3 (in Catalan). 20 September 2018. Retrieved 20 September 2018.
  35. ^ a b Reportajes teleSUR: Relato de lo inexistente (in Spanish). 18 August 2018.
  36. ^ a b Cardús, Pere (20 September 2017). "Un dia que durarà anys: la independència ja és al carrer" [A day that will last years: the independence is in the streets]. Vilaweb (in Catalan). Barcelona. Retrieved 23 September 2017.
  37. ^ Garcia, Luis (20 September 2018). "Colau anima a manifestarse en defensa del autogobierno de Catalunya". La Vanguardia (in Catalan). Retrieved 3 July 2018.
  38. ^ "Tallades la Gran Via i Via Laietana per les concentracions a davant dels Departaments d'Economia i Afers Exteriors". La Vanguardia (in Catalan). 20 September 2018. Retrieved 3 July 2018.
  39. ^ a b c "Transcripcó de la declaració de Josep Lluís Trapero a l'Audiència Nacional". Diari Ara (in Catalan). 18 October 2017. Retrieved 3 July 2018.
  40. ^ Martínez, Guillem (20 September 2017). "Milers de persones protesten al carrer per la macrooperació de la Guàrdia Civil". Betevé (in Catalan). Retrieved 3 July 2018.
  41. ^ a b c d Puig, Xavier (21 September 2017). "L'independentisme planta cara a l'Estat en defensa de l'1-O". El Temps (in Catalan). Retrieved 3 July 2018.
  42. ^ Garcia, Efren (20 September 2017). "El món casteller es mobilitza a favor de l'1-O". Diari Ara (in Catalan). Retrieved 3 July 2018.
  43. ^ a b Hannah, Strange (16 October 2017). "Two Catalan independence leaders taken into custody by Spanish national court". The Telegraph. Barcelona. Retrieved 20 October 2017.
  44. ^ "La Fiscalía denuncia por sedición en la Audiencia Nacional los incidentes de Barcelona tras las detenciones" (in Spanish). eldiario.es. 22 September 2017. Retrieved 20 October 2017.
  45. ^ "La Fiscalía pedirá investigar por sedición los disturbios en Cataluña" (in Spanish). eldiario.es. 22 September 2017. Retrieved 20 October 2017.
  46. ^ Font, Marc (26 May 2018). "'20 -S ', el documental que desmonta la versión de Llarena sobre los hechos por los que encarcelaron a los Jordis". Público (in Spanish). Retrieved 3 July 2018.
  47. ^ "Milers de persones es concentren davant del Departament d'Economia de la Generalitat". RAC1 (in Catalan). 21 September 2017. Retrieved 3 July 2018.
  48. ^ a b Hannah, Strange (16 October 2017). "Two Catalan independence leaders taken into custody by Spanish national court". The Telegraph. Barcelona.
  49. ^ Pinheiro, Marcos (17 October 2017). "Las claves del auto de Sànchez y Cuixart: actuaron contra la Guardia Civil para "proteger" a altos cargos". eldiario.es (in Spanish).
  50. ^ "La Fiscalía denuncia por sedición en la Audiencia Nacional los incidentes de Barcelona tras las detenciones". eldiario.es (in Spanish). 22 September 2017.
  51. ^ "El testimonio que puede llevar a prisión a Trapero: "Sentí terror y humillación"" (in Spanish). El Español. 15 October 2017. Retrieved 27 October 2017.
  52. ^ Sànchez, Guillem (20 September 2017). "Els manifestants, a la Guàrdia Civil: "Aquesta nit la passareu aquí"". El Periódico (in Catalan). Retrieved 3 July 2018.
  53. ^ "Guàrdies civils surten d'Economia amb l'ajuda dels Mossos després de 20 hores de setge". Nació Digital (in Catalan). 21 September 2017. Retrieved 3 July 2018.
  54. ^ "Reparar los vehículos de la Guardia Civil destrozados en Barcelona costó 135.632 euros". Heraldo.es. 2017-10-10.
  55. ^ "La Guàrdia Civil va trigar cinc hores a avisar que hi havia armes dins els cotxes que eren davant Economia". VilaWeb (in Catalan). 18 October 2017. Retrieved 3 July 2018.
  56. ^ a b Campbell, Matthew (21 October 2018). "I'll serve life in jail if I must, vows Catalan 'martyr', Jordi Cuixart". The Times. Retrieved 24 October 2018.
  57. ^ a b "Els vídeos de Sànchez i Cuixart el 20-S contra els arguments per empresonar-los". 3/24 (in Catalan). 17 October 2017. Retrieved 3 July 2018.
  58. ^ "Mapa convocatorias protesta contra la detención de los 14 cargos de la Generalitat". El público. Retrieved 23 September 2017.
  59. ^ "Les concentracions arreu de Catalunya en protesta per l'operació policial contra l'1-O". 3/24 (in Catalan). 20 September 2017. Retrieved 3 July 2018.
  60. ^ "Consulta el llistat de concentracions en defensa de les llibertats". Nació Digital (in Catalan). 20 September 2017. Retrieved 3 July 2018.
  61. ^ ACN, ed. (21 September 2017). "El Liceu entona 'Els Segadors' i crida 'Votarem' abans de la representació d'aquest dimecres al vespre" [Liceu audience sang "Els segadors" and shouted "we are going to vote" before the representation of this Wednesday]. El Punt Avui (in Catalan). Barcelona. Retrieved 23 September 2017.
  62. ^ Solé, Albert (20 September 2017). "Sindicats i entitats de la societat civil donen suport al Govern". Diari Ara (in Catalan). Retrieved 3 July 2018.
  63. ^ "Primavera Sound es mulla a favor de les institucions del país". Nació Digital (in Catalan). 20 September 2017. Retrieved 3 July 2018.
  64. ^ a b "Spain crisis: 'stop this radicalism and disobedience,' PM tells Catalan leaders". The Guardian. 21 September 2017. Retrieved 9 August 2018.
  65. ^ a b c Serra, Ot (20 September 2017). "ERC, PDECat i En Comú Podem abandonen el Congrés amb indignació per l'operació de la Guàrdia Civil". Diari Ara (in Catalan). Retrieved 4 July 2018.
  66. ^ Rolfe, Pamela; McAuley, James (23 September 2017). "As Catalan independence vote nears, Europe supports keeping Spain intact". Madrid. Retrieved 24 September 2017.
  67. ^ Sallès, Quico (21 September 2017). "El Govern activa la web para saber dónde votar el 1-O" [Catalan government activates webpage to know where to vote on 1 October]. La Vanguardia (in Spanish). Barcelona. Retrieved 24 September 2017.
  68. ^ News agencies, ed. (22 September 2017). "Separatist supporters mass outside Barcelona top court". Al Jazeera. Catalonia. Retrieved 23 September 2017.
  69. ^ Redacció, ed. (21 September 2017). "Milers de persones clamen per l'allibertament dels detinguts" [Thousands of people demand freedom for the arrested]. VilaWeb (in Catalan). Barcelona. Retrieved 23 September 2017.
  70. ^ Keeley, Graham (21 September 2017). "Catalonia: nationalists call for permanent street protests to ensure independence referendum". The Times. Barcelona. Retrieved 23 September 2017.
  71. ^ "Barcelona dockworkers refuse to operate police ship sent to thwart referendum". News4Europe. Barcelona. 21 September 2017. Retrieved 23 September 2017.
  72. ^ "Barcelona Dockworkers Refuse to Operate Police Ship Sent to Thwart Referendum". Latin American Herald Tribune. Barcelona. 21 September 2017. Retrieved 23 September 2017.
  73. ^ Santasusagna, Adrià (21 September 2017). "Milers de persones concentrades al TSJ per reclamar l'alliberament dels detinguts" [Thousands of people demonstrate in front of the High Court of Justice of Catalonia demanding freedom for the arrested]. RAC1 (in Catalan). Barcelona. Retrieved 23 September 2017.
  74. ^ a b ACN, ed. (21 September 2017). "Més de 150 persones es manifesten a favor de la Guàrdia Civil a la caserna de Travessera de Gràcia" [More than 150 people demonstrate in favour of the Spanish Civil Guard in the headquarters in Gracia]. El Món (in Catalan). Barcelona. Retrieved 23 September 2017.
  75. ^ a b Letters (2017-09-21). "Spain and the Catalan referendum | Letters". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 2017-09-25.
  76. ^ "Sardenya s'ofereix a la Generalitat per facilitar el material del referèndum" [Sardinia offers to provide referendum material to Generalitat of Catalonia]. Diari de Balears (in Catalan). Balearic Islands. 22 September 2017. Retrieved 23 September 2017.
  77. ^ "Referendum Catalogna: sit-in indipendentisti sardi a Cagliari" [Catalonia referendum: Sardinian independents sit in Cagliari]. Sardinia Post (in Italian). Sardinia. 22 September 2017. Retrieved 23 September 2017.
  78. ^ Fotheringham, Alasdair (16 October 2017). "Catalonia: Spanish judge jails two independence leaders for possible sedition". The Independent. Madrid. Retrieved 20 October 2017.
  79. ^ "Spain High Court jails Catalan separatist leaders pending investigation". The Guardian. Madrid. 17 October 2017. Retrieved 20 October 2017.
  80. ^ "The office of the Prosecutor of the National court a complaint for sedition by the riots of Barcelona". Turkey Telegraph. 23 September 2017. Retrieved 24 September 2017.
  81. ^ Manresa, Júlia (22 September 2017). "La Fiscalia de l'Audiència Nacional denuncia les mobilitzacions del 20 de setembre per sedició" [State Attorney General's office complaints the demonstrations of 20 September for sedition]. Ara (in Catalan). Barcelona. Retrieved 24 September 2017.
  82. ^ a b "Los 'Jordis' a prisión por "alentar a la masa" contra la Guardia Civil el 20-S" (in Spanish). El Español. 16 October 2017. Retrieved 21 October 2017.
  83. ^ "Criminal Code Organic Law of 1995". Organic Law No. 10 of November 23, 1995. Official State Gazette (in Spanish). Retrieved 28 October 2017.
  84. ^ Associated Press, ed. (23 September 2017). "Students occupy Barcelona university in support of secession". Fox News. Barcelona. Retrieved 24 September 2017.
  85. ^ Redacció, ed. (22 September 2017). "Els universitaris ocupen l'edifici històric de la UB en suport del referèndum" [University students occupy the historical building of the University of Barcelona to support the referendum]. Corporació Catalana de Mitjans Audiovisuals (in Catalan). Barcelona. Retrieved 24 September 2017.
  86. ^ Piulachs, M; Pérez, V (23 September 2017). "Tots els detinguts, lliures" [All detainees free]. El Punt Avui (in Catalan). Barcelona. Retrieved 23 September 2017.
  87. ^ "All Catalan officials arrested over referendum released with charges". Catalan News Agency. Barcelona. 22 September 2017. Retrieved 23 September 2017.
  88. ^ AFP, ed. (22 September 2017). "Protests in Catalonia over crackdown on banned independence vote". France24. Barcelona. Retrieved 24 September 2017.
  89. ^ a b "Internet Society statement on Internet blocking measures in Catalonia, Spain". Internet Society. 21 September 2017. Retrieved 17 April 2018.
  90. ^ "La Guardia Civil ordenó a CDMON sobre las 17 horas cerrar la web del 1-O" (in Spanish). Europa Press. 13 September 2017. Retrieved 17 April 2018.
  91. ^ "El TSJC ordena a Google retirar la app que informa sobre cómo y dónde votar el 1-O difundida por Puigdemont" (in Spanish). La Vanguardia. 30 September 2017. Retrieved 17 April 2018.
  92. ^ "APC calls for an end to restrictions on freedom of expression in Catalonia". Association for Progressive Communications. September 2017. Retrieved 17 April 2018.
  93. ^ a b "No Justification for Spanish Internet Censorship During Catalonian Referendum". Electronic Frontier Foundation. 2 October 2017. Retrieved 17 April 2018.
  94. ^ "Evidence of Internet Censorship during Catalonia's Independence Referendum". The Tor Project, Inc. 3 October 2017. Retrieved 17 April 2018.
  95. ^ "Digital repression and resistance during the #CatalanReferendum". Xnet. 4 October 2017. Retrieved 17 April 2018.
  96. ^ [1]
  97. ^ "La jueza deja en libertad al mayor Trapero pero le impone medidas cautelares". Cadena Ser. 2017-10-16.
  98. ^ "Spain: charges for sedition and pre-trial detention against Jordi Cuixart and Jordi Sanchez are excessive". Amnesty International. Retrieved 2017-10-18.
  99. ^ "Spanje: recente ontwikkelingen in Catalonië". Amnesty International. Retrieved 28 March 2018.
  100. ^ "High Commissioner's global update of human rights concerns". OHCHR. 2018-03-07. Retrieved 2018-03-08.
  101. ^ "Chomsky, Guardiola i altres veus internacionals demanen la llibertat dels polítics catalans a la presó". RAC1 (in Catalan). 19 July 2018. Retrieved 19 August 2018.
  102. ^ "Statement following PEN International's visit to imprisoned Catalan civil society leaders". PEN International. 8 August 2018. Retrieved 9 August 2018.
  103. ^ "El PEN Internacional diu que l'empresonament de Cuixart i Sánchez és "excessiu"". El Món (in Catalan). 9 August 2018. Retrieved 9 August 2018.

External links[edit]