Kebab Norwegian (Kebabnorsk; pronounced [²keːbɑbˌnɔʂk]) is an ethnolect variety of Norwegian that incorporates words from languages of non-Western immigrants to Norway, such as Turkish, Kurdish, Arabic, Urdu, Pashto, Persian, and Punjabi. Kebab Norwegian has its origin among immigrant youths and those growing up with immigrant youths in the eastern parts of Oslo.
Kebab Norwegian was first identified in the 1990s. In 1995, Stine Aasheim wrote an M.A. thesis on the phenomenon: "Kebab-norsk: fremmedspråklig påvirkning på ungdomsspråket i Oslo". Andreas Eilert Østby, who used Kebab Norwegian in his translation of Jonas Hassen Khemiri's novel Ett öga rött about immigrants speaking a similar dialect of Swedish, published a Kebab Norwegian dictionary in the same year, 2005. In 2007, a hip-hop Kebab Norwegian version of Romeo and Juliet was staged in Oslo. In 2008, 99% Ærlig, a film about East Oslo youth, featured Kebab Norwegian.
The name "Kebab Norwegian" is taken from the kebab and based on stereotypes of users, who tend not to refer to it by that name, and increasingly perceive it as referring to "bad Norwegian" rather than linguistic creativity. Academic researchers more commonly refer to it as an ethnolect, specifically "Norwegian multiethnolect". It includes words from about 20 languages, including Japanese and a "surprisingly large amount of Spanish".
The dialect continues to evolve. As is characteristic of immigrant ways of speaking, it is also used by native-born young people when speaking with their peers, and users code-switch and avoid it in situations such as job interviews.
- Published in Ulla-Britt Kotsinas, Anna-Britta Stenström and Anna-Malin Karlsson, eds., Ungdomsspråk i Norden, föredrag från ett forskarsymposium: Språk och Kultur i Norden, 3, 14-16 juni 1996, Stockholm, MINS 43, Stockholm: Institutionen för nordiska språk, 1997, OCLC 470107861, pp. 235-42.
- Toril Opsahl, "'Egentlig alle kan bidra'", Meninger (Opinions), Aftenposten 18 March 2010 (in Norwegian)
- Bernt Erik Pedersen, "– Avblås jakten på 'innvandrerromanen'", , Dagsavisen, Kultur (Culture), 23 April 2005, retrieved 21 February 2011 (in Norwegian)
- Mona Larsen, ["Kjærlighet på kebabnorsk: 'Shakespeare in Love', 'Rapsody in Blue' og nå – 'Romeo og Julie in Rap!'. Framført på kebabnorsk på en teaterbåt Bjørvika"], Dagsavisen, Kultur 22 October 2007, retrieved 21 February 2011 (in Norwegian)
- Sandra Mei Ling Noer, "Nå skal Norge lære kebab-norsk", NRK Østlandsendingen 12 September 2008 (in Norwegian)
- Stig Nøra, "Misliker kebabnorsk", Forskning.no 10 December 2010 (in Norwegian)
- Lars Anders Kulbrandstad, "Etnolekter—hva er det?", Norsklæreren 3 (2003) 5-13, p. 12 (pdf) (in Norwegian)
- Bente Ailin Svendsen and Unn Røyneland, "Multiethnolectal facts and functions in Oslo, Norway", International Journal of Bilingualism March 2008, pp. 63-83, abstract.
- Hilde Lundgaard, "Kebabnorsk goes caramba", Aftenposten 26 January 2002 (in Norwegian)
- Cathrine Hellesøy, "Blod og babes på Holmlia - Snakker kebabnorsk med venner", Aftenposten 22 December 2010, Archived version (registration required), updated January 1, 2011 as "La oss avor, baosj kommer!", retrieved 21 February 2011 (in Norwegian)
- Hege Ulstein, "Budlekurre: Tert eller besti?: Språk er kommunikasjon. Men det er også identitet", Meninger, Dagsavisen 19 June 2011, updated 21 June 2011, retrieved 21 February 2011 (in Norwegian)
- Håkon Bolstad, Kebabnorsk, Typisk norsk, NRK 12 May 2004, with a list of words and their origins.
- Kebabnorsk on Typisk norsk, YouTube