James Wood Bush
|James Wood Bush|
Honolulu, Oʻahu, Kingdom of Hawaiʻi
|Died||April 24, 1906|
Kealia, Kauaʻi, Territory of Hawaii
|Years of service||1864–65|
|Battles/wars||American Civil War|
|Relations||John E. Bush (brother)|
James Wood Bush (c. 1844 – April 24, 1906) was an American Union Navy sailor of British and Native Hawaiian descent. He was among a group of more than one hundred Native Hawaiian and Hawaii-born combatants in the American Civil War, at a time when the Kingdom of Hawaii was still an independent nation.
Enlisting in the Union Navy in 1864, Bush served as a sailor aboard the USS Vandalia and the captured Confederate vessel USS Beauregard, which maintained the blockade of the ports of the Confederacy. He was discharged from service in 1865 after an injury, which developed into a chronic condition in later life. The impoverished Bush was unable to return to Hawaii for more than a decade, during which time he traveled through New England and much of the Pacific. Back in Hawaii, he worked as a government tax collector and road supervisor for the island of Kauai, where he settled down. In later life he converted to Mormonism and became an active member of the Hawaiian Mission. After the annexation of Hawaii to the United States, Bush was recognized for his military service, and in 1905 was granted a government pension for the injuries he received in the Navy. He died at his home on Kauai on April 24, 1906.
For a long period after the Civil War, the legacy and contributions of Bush and other documented Hawaiian participants were largely forgotten except in the private circles of descendants and historians. There has been a revival of interest, especially through the efforts of his great-grandniece Edna Bush Ellis and others in the Hawaiian community. In 2010, the "Hawaiʻi Sons of the Civil War" were commemorated with a bronze plaque erected along the memorial pathway at the National Memorial Cemetery of the Pacific in Honolulu.
James Wood Bush was born in Honolulu. The date of his birth is uncertain; sources claim it to be October 1844, 1845, or 1847–1848. He was the son of George Henry Bush (1807–1853), a native of Suffolk, England, who went to Hawaii in 1825, and his Hawaiian wife. Bush was thus of mixed Native Hawaiian and Caucasian descent, known as hapa haole in Hawaiian, although in his lifetime he was referred to as a "half-caste". His older brother was John Edward Bush, who became a newspaper publisher and politician, serving as royal governor of Kauaʻi and a cabinet minister under the reign of King Kalākaua. Little is known about Bush's life before 1864. Like his brother, he began his career as a sailor working on either merchant or whaling ships in the Pacific. Hawaiian sailors were highly regarded in the 18th- and 19th-century maritime industry.
American Civil War
After the outbreak of the American Civil War, the Kingdom of Hawaiʻi under King Kamehameha IV declared its neutrality on August 26, 1861. Some Native Hawaiians and Hawaiian-born Americans (mainly descendants of American missionaries) both abroad and in the islands volunteered to enlist in the military regiments of various states in the Union and the Confederacy. Individual Native Hawaiians had been serving in the United States Navy and Army since the War of 1812, and more served during the Civil War. Many Hawaiians sympathized with the Union because of Hawaiʻi's ties to New England through its missionaries and the whaling industries, and the ideological opposition of many to the institution of slavery.
Arriving in New England at the beginning of the war, Bush enlisted at Portsmouth, New Hampshire, for a three-year term as an "ordinary seaman" on September 27, 1864. During his service, he worked on the USS Vandalia and later the captured Confederate vessel USS Beauregard, which chased blockade runners off West Florida as part of the squadrons responsible for maintaining the blockade of the ports of the Confederacy. He developed chronic laryngitis and spinal injuries due to his service in the Union Navy and was discharged in September 1865 at the Brooklyn Naval Hospital. When the war ended, the impoverished Bush had no way of returning to Hawaii. For the next decade, he lived in New Bedford, San Francisco, and Tahiti, finally returning to Hawaii in 1877. In 1905, after Hawaii became a US territory, Bush was granted a pension for his service in the Civil War, with back pensions dating from May 8, 1897.
After returning to Hawaii, Bush settled on the island of Kauai. In 1880, he was listed as the tax collector of Kawaihau, Kauai. In 1882, his older brother, in his capacity as Minister of Interior, appointed Bush the Road Supervisor for the District of Hanalei to replace Christian Bertlemann, who had resigned. In 1887, Bush converted to Mormonism and was ordained an elder after two years, undertaking missionary work in the islands. He became the bishop of the Latter-day Saints ward in Kealia and hosted Mormon historian Andrew Jenson during his 1895 visit to Kauai. In around 1894, Bush married a young girl at Lahaina, traveling to Kona after their marriage.
Bush died of heart failure at Kealia, Kauai, on April 24, 1906. In the last years of his life, he was a janitor at the Kealia prison. He was survived by his wife and son. Lorenzo Taylor, writing for the Deseret News shortly after Bush's death, said, "[H]e has taken an active part in the missionary work, doing much good among his fellow men. He has also been very kind to the elders, and his doors were always open to them. He was greatly beloved and respected by all who knew him. His life was a noble example of faithful and untiring devotion to the Gospel." Bush is believed to be buried on Kauai, but the location of his grave is uncertain. According to Anita Manning, an Associate in Cultural Studies at Bishop Museum, "even the family can't find him".
After the war, the military service of Hawaiians, including James Wood Bush and many others, was largely forgotten, disappearing from the collective memories of the American Civil War and the history of Hawaii. Hawaiian residents, historians, and descendants of Hawaiian combatants in the conflict have insisted on the need to remember the legacy of the Hawaiians who fought. Renewed interest in the stories of these individuals and this particular period of Hawaiian-American history has inspired efforts to preserve the memories of the Hawaiians who served in the war.
Stating that "our boys from Hawaii" should be remembered, Bush's great-grandniece Edna Bush Ellis was influential in reviving interest and in the effort to install a memorial recognizing their legacy. On August 26, 2010, on the anniversary of the signing of the Hawaiian Neutrality Proclamation, a bronze plaque was erected along the memorial pathway at the National Memorial Cemetery of the Pacific in Honolulu recognizing the "Hawaiʻi Sons of the Civil War", the more than one hundred Hawaiians who were documented as serving during the American Civil War for both the Union and the Confederacy. As of 2014, researchers have identified 119 documented Native Hawaiian and Hawaii-born combatants from historical records. The exact number still remains unclear because many Hawaiians enlisted and served under Anglicized names, and little is known about them due to the lack of detailed records.
In 2015, the sesquicentennial of the end of the American Civil War, the National Park Service released the publication Asians and Pacific Islanders and the Civil War about the service of the many combatants of Asian and Pacific Islander descent who fought during the war. The history of Hawaii's involvement and the biographies of Bush and others were written by historians Anita Manning, Justin Vance and others.
- Taylor 1906a, p. 359; Taylor 1906b, p. 827
- Vance & Manning 2015b, p. 158.
- Vance & Manning 2012
- The Pacific Commercial Advertiser 1906
- Grave Marker of George Henry Bush. Honolulu, Hawaii: Oahu Cemetery.
- The Polynesian 1863
- Jenson 1895, pp. 524–525.
- Hawaii state office record
- Manning 2013, p. 87.
- Kuykendall 1953, pp. 57–66.
- Grzyb 2016, pp. 127–128.
- Damon 1941
- Schmitt 1998, pp. 171–172.
- Manning & Vance 2014, pp. 145–170.
- Vance & Manning 2015a, pp. 132–135.
- Foenander & Milligan 2015
- Shively 2015, pp. 158, 170.
- The Pacific Commercial Advertiser 1905
- The Hawaiian Star 1905
- The Pacific Commercial Advertiser 1880
- The Pacific Commercial Advertiser 1882
- Jenson 1895, pp. 524–525; Taylor 1906a, p. 359; Taylor 1906b, p. 827
- The Pacific Commercial Advertiser 1900
- The Pacific Commercial Advertiser 1894
- Cole 2014
- Vance & Manning 2015c, pp. 161–163.
- Burlingame 2008; Lewis 2014
- Cole 2010
- Davis 2014.
- Hawaiʻi Pacific University 2015.
- Shively 2015, pp. 130–163.
Books and journals
- Grzyb, Frank L. (2016). The Last Civil War Veterans: The Lives of the Final Survivors, State by State. Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Company, Inc., Publishers. ISBN 978-1-4766-2488-4. OCLC 946085079.
- Kuykendall, Ralph Simpson (1953). The Hawaiian Kingdom 1854–1874, Twenty Critical Years. 2. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 978-0-87022-432-4. OCLC 226356000.
- Manning, Anita; Vance, Justin W. (2014). "Hawaiʻi at Home During the American Civil War". The Hawaiian Journal of History. 47: 145–170. hdl:10524/47259. OCLC 60626541.
- Manning, Anita (2013). "Keaupuni: A Hawaiian Sailor's Odyssey". The Hawaiian Journal of History. 47: 87–102. hdl:10524/36267. OCLC 60626541.
- Schmitt, Robert C. (1998). "Hawaiʻi's War Veterans and Battle Deaths". The Hawaiian Journal of History. 32: 171–174. hdl:10524/521. OCLC 60626541.
- Shively, Carol A., ed. (2015). "Pacific Islanders and the Civil War". Asians and Pacific Islanders and the Civil War. Washington, DC: National Park Service. pp. 130–163. ISBN 978-1-59091-167-9. OCLC 904731668.
- Vance, Justin W.; Manning, Anita (October 2012). "The Effects of the American Civil War on Hawaiʻi and the Pacific World". World History Connected. 9 (3). Retrieved August 5, 2015.
Newspapers and online sources
- Burlingame, Burl (August 26, 2008). "Reviving History". Honolulu Star-Bulletin. Honolulu. Retrieved August 5, 2015.
- "Bush, John Edward office record". Hawaii State Archives digital collections. state of Hawaii. Archived from the original on April 3, 2012. Retrieved August 5, 2015.
- Cole, William (February 23, 2014). "Civil War Veteran's Grave Will Remain Unmarked". Honolulu Star-Advertiser. Honolulu. Retrieved August 5, 2015.
- Cole, William (May 31, 2010). "Native Hawaiians served on both sides during Civil War". Honolulu Star-Advertiser. Honolulu. Retrieved August 5, 2015.
- Damon, Ethel M. (April 1, 1941). "Punahou Volunteers of 1863". The Friend. CXI (4). Honolulu. p. 67. Archived from the original on June 4, 2016. Retrieved August 5, 2015.
- Davis, Chelsea (October 26, 2014). "Hawaiian Civil War soldier finally recognized". Hawaii News Now. Retrieved August 5, 2015.
- Foenander, Terry; Milligan, Edward; et al. (March 2015). "Hawaiians in the Civil War" (PDF). National Park Service. Retrieved August 5, 2015.
- "Gets Pension". The Hawaiian Star. XIII (4132). Honolulu. June 19, 1905. p. 2. Retrieved August 5, 2015.
- Hawaiʻi Pacific University (July 15, 2015). "HPU partners with National Park Service, Hawaii Civil War Round Table for July 17 talk". HPU News. Archived from the original on July 20, 2015. Retrieved August 5, 2015.
- "Hawaiian Veteran of Civil War Dies". The Pacific Commercial Advertiser. XLIII (7399). Honolulu. April 26, 1906. p. 11. Retrieved August 5, 2015.
- Jenson, Andrew (1895). "Jenson's Travel – Letter No XVII". The Deseret Weekly. Salt Lake City. pp. 524–525.
- Lewis, Keisha (February 14, 2014). "HPU prof speaks at National Prisoner of War Museum". Kalamalama. Honolulu. Retrieved August 5, 2015.
- "Local Brevities". The Pacific Commercial Advertiser. XX (3848). Honolulu. November 21, 1894. p. 7. Retrieved August 5, 2015.
- "Local Brevities". The Pacific Commercial Advertiser. III (129). Honolulu. June 18, 1905. p. 12. Retrieved August 5, 2015.
- "Message from the Interior Office". The Pacific Commercial Advertiser. XXVII (14). Honolulu. September 30, 1882. p. 2. Retrieved August 5, 2015.
- "Sale By Order of the Supreme Court". The Polynesian. XIX (47). Honolulu. March 21, 1863. p. 3. Retrieved August 5, 2015.
- "Tax Collectors for 1880". The Pacific Commercial Advertiser. XXV (10). Honolulu. September 4, 1880. p. 3. Retrieved August 5, 2015.
- Taylor, Lorenzo (1906). "A Native Elder Dies". Elder's Journal of the Southern States Mission. 3. Chattanooga, TN. p. 359. Retrieved August 5, 2015.
- Taylor, Lorenzo (1906). Anderson, Edward H., ed. "Events and Comments: James W. Bush Dead". The Improvement Era. 9. Salt Lake City. p. 827. Retrieved August 5, 2015.
- "Two New Divorce Cases". The Pacific Commercial Advertiser. XXXII (5650). Honolulu. September 14, 1900. p. 7. Retrieved August 5, 2015.
- Kam, Ralph Thomas (2009). "Commemorating the Grand Army of the Republic in Hawaiʻi: 1882–1930". The Hawaiian Journal of History. 43: 125–151. hdl:10524/12242. OCLC 60626541.
- Moniz, Wayne (2014). Pukoko: A Hawaiian in the American Civil War. Wailuku, HI: Pūnāwai Press. ISBN 978-0-9791507-4-6.
- Rogers, Charles T., ed. (January 1884). "Hawaii's Contribution to the War for the Union". The Hawaiian Monthly. 1 (1). Honolulu: Printed at the Hawaiian Gazette Office. pp. 2–4. OCLC 616847011.
- Foenander, Terry; Milligan, Edward; et al. (March 2015). "Asians and Pacific Islanders in the Civil War" (PDF). National Park Service. Retrieved August 5, 2015.
- "Hawaiʻi Sons of The Civil War: A Documentary Film". Hawaiʻi Sons of The Civil War. Retrieved August 5, 2015.