Ingvar Carlsson

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Ingvar Carlsson
Ingvar Carlsson på Idrottsgalan 2013.jpg
Ingvar Carlsson during the Swedish sports awards ceremony in January 2013
29th Prime Minister of Sweden
In office
13 March 1986 – 4 October 1991
MonarchCarl XVI Gustaf
DeputySvante Lundkvist (1986)
Kjell-Olof Feldt (1986–1990)
Lena Hjelm-Wallén (1990)
Odd Engström (1990–1991)
Preceded byOlof Palme
Succeeded byCarl Bildt
In office
7 October 1994 – 22 March 1996
MonarchCarl XVI Gustaf
DeputyMona Sahlin (1994–1995)
Lena Hjelm-Wallén (1995–1996)
Preceded byCarl Bildt
Succeeded byGöran Persson
Leader of the
Swedish Social Democratic Party
In office
13 March 1986 – 22 March 1996
Preceded byOlof Palme
Succeeded byGöran Persson
Deputy Prime Minister of Sweden
In office
8 October 1982 – 28 February 1986
Prime MinisterOlof Palme
Preceded byOla Ullsten
Succeeded bySvante Lundkvist (Acting)
Personal details
BornGösta Ingvar Carlsson
(1934-11-09) 9 November 1934 (age 83)
Borås, Sweden
Political partySocial Democratic Party
Spouse(s)Ingrid Carlsson
ResidenceTyresö, Södermanland County, Sweden
Alma materLund University,
ProfessionBusiness economist
Signature

Gösta Ingvar Carlsson (born 9 November 1934) is a Swedish politician who twice served as Prime Minister of Sweden, first from 1986 to 1991 and again from 1994 to 1996.[1] He was leader of the Swedish Social Democratic Party from 1986 to 1996.[2][3] He is best known for leading Sweden into the European Union.

Carlsson was a member of the Riksdag from 1965 to 1996 representing the constituency of Stockholm County (until 1970 in the lower house). He served as Minister of Education from 1969 to 1973, as Minister of Housing in 1973 and again from 1974 to 1976 and as Minister of Environmental affairs from 1985 to 1986. He served as Deputy Prime Minister from 1982 to 1986 and assumed office as Prime Minister of Sweden upon the assassination of Prime Minister Olof Palme in 1986.

Early life[edit]

Carlsson was born in Borås, Västra Götaland County (then Älvsborg County), Sweden and is the third son of the warehouse worker Olof Karlsson and Ida, née Johansson.[4] Carlsson has a diploma in business economics and a degree in political science from Lund University. In Lund he met with Tage Erlander, the Swedish prime minister and his aide Olof Palme, later to become Erlander's successor.

Political career[edit]

After finishing studies Carlsson got a job in Erlander's staff. In 1965, after completing further studies at Northwestern University in Illinois in the United States, he was elected member of the Swedish Parliament. In the same year, he also became leader of the Swedish Social Democratic Youth League. He had the following ministerial posts: Minister of Education 1969-1973, Minister of Housing 1973-1976, Deputy Prime Minister 1982-1986.

He was, together with Olof Palme, known as one of "Erlander's boys".

Prime Minister[edit]

Following the assassination of Olof Palme in 1986, Ingvar Carlsson became the new Prime Minister or Statsminister and party leader. Together with Minister for Finance Kjell-Olof Feldt, the government turned a budget deficit of 90 billion SEK to a surplus of a few hundred billion SEK, which initially led to large investments and record low unemployment.[citation needed] 1980s Social Democratic neoliberal measures—such as depressing and deregulating the currency to prop up Swedish exports during the economic restructuring transition, dropping corporate taxation and taxation on high income-earners, and switching from anti-unemployment policies to anti-inflationary policies—were exacerbated by international recession, unchecked currency speculation, and a centre-right government led by Carl Bildt (1991–1994), creating the fiscal crisis of the early 1990s.[5]

Göran Persson was a prolific Social Democratic leader, holding the office of Prime Minister for ten years

When the Social Democrats returned to power in 1994, they responded to the fiscal crisis[6] by stabilizing the currency—and by reducing the welfare state and privatizing public services and goods, as governments did in many countries influenced by Milton Friedman, the Chicago Schools of political and economic thought, and the neoliberal movement. As Prime Minister he also carried out a comprehensive reform of the tax system. But Sweden's economy began to deteriorate in the early 1990s. In 1990 the Carlsson cabinet resigned after failing to gain a majority for its economic policy agenda, but was reinstated immediately with a slightly changed agenda.

The Social Democrats lost the elections in 1991, but Carlsson returned to power after the elections in 1994. After three years in opposition and an election victory in the 1994 elections, Carlsson formed a new government. This government realigned its focus on cleaning up Swedish Government finances, and the task was assigned to the newly appointed Minister of Finance Göran Persson. The ensuing governing period was difficult and it was strongly criticized by trade unions and party members for government service cuts and tax increases that were instituted.

In August 1995, Ingvar Carlsson announced that he would resign as party leader and Swedish Prime Minister. His successor was long considered to be the then Minister of Equality and Deputy Prime Minister Mona Sahlin. However, due to the so-called Toblerone Affair, she took back her candidacy and also later resigned from the government. On 5 December 1995 the nominating committee proposed the Minister for Finance, Göran Persson, as the new party leader candidate. He was elected on 15 March 1996 at the Social Democratic Party Congress as party leader and on 22 March 1996 he was elected Prime Minister.

Later life[edit]

Ingvar Carlsson was Chairman of the inquiry after the Gothenburg Riots of 2001 to investigate the events. Their report was submitted to the Government on 14 January 2003.[7]

Ingvar Carlsson was the Chairman of the Independent Inquiry into United Nations actions during the 1994 Rwandan Genocide.[8] He is also chairman of the Bergman Foundation Center on Fårö.[9]

With Shridath Ramphal, he was in 1995 one of the co-chairs of the Commission on Global Governance, which reported on issues of international development, international security, globalization and global governance.

His career has been shaped by the heritage of Olof Palme, with whom he worked closely, but his policies are more seen as being a continuation of the legacy established by Tage Erlander.

Personal life[edit]

He is married since 1957 to librarian Ingrid Melander (born 1934), daughter of the wholesaler Sven H Melander and Gerda, née Eriksson.[4] They have two daughters.

In 1989, Carlsson received an honorary doctorate from Lund University and in 1991 he received an honorary doctorate from Northwestern University.[4]

Ingvar Carlsson is a big supporter of football teams IF Elfsborg and Wolverhampton Wanderers F.C..[10]

Bibliography[edit]

  • Carlsson, Ingvar (2014). Lärdomar: personliga och politiska (in Swedish). Stockholm: Norstedt. ISBN 9789113052687.
  • Carlsson, Ingvar; Lindgren, Anne-Marie (2007) [1974]. Vad är socialdemokrati?: en bok om idéer och utmaningar (in Swedish) ([New edi.] ed.). Stockholm: Arbetarrörelsens tankesmedja. ISBN 978-91-976756-0-4.
  • Carlsson, Ingvar (2003). Så tänkte jag: politik & dramatik (in Swedish) (1st ed.). Stockholm: Hjalmarson & Högberg. ISBN 91-89660-22-6.
  • Carlsson, Ingvar (1999). Ur skuggan av Olof Palme (in Swedish). Stockholm: Hjalmarson & Högberg. ISBN 91-89080-37-8.
  • Carlsson, Ingvar (1994). Tillväxt och rättvisa (in Swedish). Stockholm: Tiden. ISBN 91-550-4167-1.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Sveriges regeringar under 100 år" (in Swedish). regeringen.se. Archived from the original on June 12, 2011. Retrieved 28 January 2010.
  2. ^ "Ingvar Carlsson". Nationalencyklopedin (in Swedish). Retrieved 28 January 2010.
  3. ^ "Ingvar Carlsson" (in Norwegian). Store norske leksikon. Retrieved 28 January 2010.
  4. ^ a b c Uddling, Hans; Paabo, Katrin, eds. (1992). Vem är det: svensk biografisk handbok. 1993 [Who is it: Swedish biographical handbook. 1993] (in Swedish). Stockholm: Norstedt. p. 201. ISBN 91-1-914072-X.
  5. ^ Englund, P. 1990. "Financial deregulation in Sweden." European Economic Review 34 (2–3): 385–393. Korpi TBD. Meidner, R. 1997. "The Swedish model in an era of mass unemployment." Economic and Industrial Democracy 18 (1): 87–97. Olsen, Gregg M. 1999. "Half empty or half full? The Swedish welfare state in transition." Canadian Review of Sociology & Anthropology, 36 (2): 241–268.
  6. ^ | (archive date: 27 June 2007) Between 1990 and 1994, per capita income declined by approximately 10% hdr.undp (original URL: [1]) (access date: 5 July 2007) (dead URL)
  7. ^ Hedberg, Kristina; Klinghoffer, Sanna (14 January 2003). "Hård kritik mot polisen för Göteborgskravallerna" [Harsh criticism against the police for the Gothenburg riots] (in Swedish). Sveriges Radio. Retrieved 10 June 2015.
  8. ^ "Press Release SC/6843" (Press release). United Nations. 14 April 2000. Archived from the original on 7 July 2015. Retrieved 10 June 2015.
  9. ^ "Ingvar Carlsson: "Precis det vi hoppats på"" [Ingvar Carlsson: "Just what we hoped for"]. Dagens Nyheter (in Swedish). 2009-10-23. Retrieved 10 June 2015.
  10. ^ "Ingvar Carlsson på besök" [Ingvar Carlsson to visit] (in Swedish). Sveriges Radio. 5 February 2010. Retrieved 10 June 2015.

Further reading[edit]

  • Ruin, Olof. "Three Swedish Prime Ministers: Tage Erlander, Olof Palme and Ingvar Carlsson." West European Politics 14.3 (1991): 58-82.
  • Bjereld, Ulf, ed. (2009). Socialdemokratin i krig och fred: Ingvar Carlsson 75 år [Social democracy in war and peace: Ingvar Carlsson 75 years] (in Swedish). Hedemora: Gidlund. ISBN 9789178447893.
  • Kratz, Anita (1996). Ingvar Carlsson: Erlanders siste pojke [Ingvar Carlsson: Erlander's last boy] (in Swedish). Stockholm: Bonnier Alba. ISBN 91-34-51888-6.
Political offices
Preceded by
Olof Palme
Minister for Education
1969–1973
Succeeded by
Bertil Zachrisson
Preceded by
None
Minister for Housing
1974–1976
Succeeded by
Elvy Olsson
Preceded by
Ola Ullsten
Deputy Prime Minister
1982–1986
Succeeded by
Svante Lundkvist
Preceded by
None
Minister for the Environment
1985 1986
Succeeded by
Birgitta Dahl
Preceded by
Olof Palme
Prime Minister of Sweden
1986–1991
Succeeded by
Carl Bildt
Preceded by
Carl Bildt
Prime Minister of Sweden
1994–1996
Succeeded by
Göran Persson
Party political offices
Preceded by
Olof Palme
Leader of the Swedish Social Democratic Party
1986–1996
Succeeded by
Göran Persson