Demographics of Botswana

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This article is about the demographic features of the population of Botswana, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.

Demographics of Botswana, Data of FAO, year 2008; Number of inhabitants in thousands.
A type of house in Botswana

Botswana, like many nations in southern Africa, suffers from a high HIV infection rate, estimated among adults ages 15 to 49 to be 24.8%.[1]

Population[edit]

Census results[edit]

Botswana Population and Housing Census
YearPop.±% p.a.
1904 120,776—    
1911 124,350+0.42%
1921 152,983+2.09%
1936 265,756+3.75%
1946 296,310+1.09%
1956 309,175+0.43%
1964 549,510+7.45%
1971 596,994+1.19%
1981 941,027+4.66%
1991 1,326,796+3.50%
2001 1,680,863+2.39%
2011 2,024,787+1.88%
[2][3][4]

Bechuanaland Protectorate[edit]

The seven censuses of Botswana before its independence happened irregularly. Due to the Anglo-Boer War, the first census of Bechuanaland Protectorate, originally set to occur in 1901, took place on 17 April 1904.[2] The 1931 census was postponed to 1936 because of the Great Depression.[2] The early censuses were unreliable and took several years to tabulate; the results were outdated by the time they were calculated.

Post-independence[edit]

There have been five censuses after the independence of Botswana, each occurring every ten years in the year ending in 1 (i.e. 1971, 1981, 1991, 2001, and 2011). The 1971 census was the first census in Botswana to use de facto enumeration; this method counts people based on how many people spent census night at a specific location. Previously, the citizens were counted based on their usual place of residence. The 2001 census was the first census in Botswana to comply with the SADC 2000 Census Project, the guidelines of which unify the demographic statistics in southern Africa. The most recent census was the 2011 Botswana Population and Housing Census, which occurred in August 2011.

UN estimates[edit]

According to the 2017 revision of the World Population Prospects[5] the total population was 2,250,260 in 2016, compared to only 413,000 in 1950. The proportion of children below the age of 15 in 2010 was 32.6%, 63.4% was between 15 and 65 years of age, while 4% was 65 years or older.[6]

Total population Population aged 0–14 (%) Population aged 15–64 (%) Population aged 65+ (%)
1950 413 000 40.9 54.8 4.4
1955 470 000 42.4 53.4 4.2
1960 524 000 45.6 50.4 4.0
1965 596 000 48.4 48.2 3.5
1970 693 000 47.9 48.9 3.2
1975 822 000 47.1 50.1 2.8
1980 996 000 46.5 51.0 2.5
1985 1 183 000 46.3 51.2 2.4
1990 1 382 000 44.8 52.6 2.6
1995 1 586 000 41.6 55.7 2.7
2000 1 758 000 37.9 59.0 3.0
2005 1 876 000 34.9 61.6 3.5
2010 2 007 000 32.6 63.4 4.0

Vital statistics[edit]

Registration of vital events is in Botswana not complete. The Population Departement of the United Nations prepared the following estimates. [6]

Period Live births per year Deaths per year Natural change per year CBR* CDR* NC* TFR* IMR*
1950–1955 21 000 8 000 12 000 47.0 18.8 28.2 6.50 135
1955–1960 23 000 9 000 15 000 47.3 17.3 29.9 6.58 124
1960–1965 26 000 9 000 17 000 46.6 15.6 31.0 6.65 113
1965–1970 30 000 9 000 21 000 46.1 14.0 32.1 6.70 104
1970–1975 34 000 9 000 25 000 45.5 12.0 33.4 6.55 90
1975–1980 41 000 9 000 32 000 45.0 9.9 35.1 6.37 75
1980–1985 46 000 9 000 37 000 42.5 8.4 34.1 5.97 63
1985–1990 48 000 9 000 39 000 37.2 7.0 30.2 5.11 54
1990–1995 48 000 11 000 37 000 32.2 7.2 25.0 4.32 51
1995–2000 48 000 18 000 30 000 28.6 11.0 17.7 3.70 61
2000–2005 46 000 27 000 19 000 25.5 14.9 10.6 3.18 59
2005–2010 47 000 25 000 23 000 24.2 12.6 11.6 2.90 41
* CBR = crude birth rate (per 1000); CDR = crude death rate (per 1000); NC = natural change (per 1000); IMR = infant mortality rate per 1000 births; TFR = total fertility rate (number of children per woman)

Births and deaths [7]

Year Population Live births Deaths Natural increase Crude birth rate Crude death rate Rate of natural increase TFR
2012 40 856 12 270 28 586
2014 41 741 12 177 29 564

Source: Vital Statistics Report 2012.

Life expectancy at birth[edit]

Life expectancy from 1950 to 2015 (UN World Population Prospects)[8]:

Period Life expectancy in

Years

1950–1955 47.67
1955–1960 Increase 49.71
1960–1965 Increase 51.61
1965–1970 Increase 53.37
1970–1975 Increase 56.07
1975–1980 Increase 59.32
1980–1985 Increase 61.75
1985–1990 Increase 62.54
1990–1995 Decrease 59.86
1995–2000 Decrease 51.31
2000–2005 Decrease 49.15
2005–2010 Increase 56.52
2010–2015 Increase 62.91

Ethnic groups[edit]

Tswana or Setswana [9] 79%, Kalanga[9] 11%, Basarwa[9] 3%, other 7% (including Kgalagadi and White[9] )

Languages[edit]

Setswana 77.3%, Sekalanga 7.4%, Sekgalagadi, seyeyi 3.4%, English (official) 2.8%, Zezuru/Shona 2%, Sesarwa 1.7%, Sembukushu 1.6%, Ndebele 1%, other 2.8% (2011 est.) [9]

Religions[edit]

Christian[9] 79.1%, Badimo[9] 4.1%, Other 1.4% (includes Baha'i,[9] Hindu,[9] Islam,[9] Rastafarian[9]), None[9] 15.2%, Unspecified[9] 0.3% (2011 est.)

CIA World Factbook demographic statistics[edit]

The following demographic statistics are from the 2017 CIA World Factbook.

Population[edit]

2,214,858 (July 2017 est.)

Population growth rate[edit]

1.55% (2017 est.)

Birth rate[edit]

22.1 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)

Death rate[edit]

9.6 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)

Median age[edit]

total: 24.5 years
male: 23.5 years
female: 25.6 years (2017 est.)

Net migration rate[edit]

3 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2009 est.) [1]
note: there is an increasing flow of Zimbabweans into Botswana and South Africa in search of better economic opportunities.

Urbanization[edit]

Urban population: 69.4% of total population (2018)
Rate of urbanization: 2.87% annual rate of change (2015–20 est.)

Sex ratio[edit]

at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15–64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.68 male(s)/female
total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2011 est.)

Life expectancy at birth[edit]

Total population: 63.3 years
Male: 61.2 years
Female: 65.5 years (2017 est.)

HIV/AIDS[edit]

Adult prevalence rate: 22.8% (2017 est.)
People living with HIV/AIDS: 380,000 (2017 est.)
Deaths due to AIDS: 4,100 (2017 est.)

Physicians density[edit]

0.38 physicians/1,000 population (2012)

Hospital bed density[edit]

1.8 beds/1,000 population (2010)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate[edit]

18.9% (2015)

Major infectious diseases[edit]

Degree of risk: high
Food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
Vectorborne disease: malaria (2009)

Nationality[edit]

Noun: Motswana (singular), Batswana (plural)
Adjective: Motswana (singular), Batswana (plural)

Literacy[edit]

Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 88.5%
Male: 88%
Female: 88.9% (2015 est.)

Education expenditure[edit]

8.7% of total GDP (2007)

References[edit]

  1. ^ "HIV & Aids in Botswana". AVERT International HIV & Aids Charity. Retrieved 15 January 2013.
  2. ^ a b c "History". Central Statistics Office. Archived from the original on 20 July 2012. Retrieved 20 July 2012.
  3. ^ "TABLE 1: 1971, 1981, 1991 and 2001 CENSUS DEMOGRAPHIC INDICATORS; BOTSWANA" (PDF). Gaborone: Central Statistics Office. p. 1. Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 July 2012. Retrieved 20 July 2012.
  4. ^ "The Population of Towns, Villages and Associated Localities" (PDF). 2011 Population and Housing Census. Gaborone: Statistics Botswana. June 2012. p. 1. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 June 2012. Retrieved 20 July 2012.
  5. ^ "World Population Prospects: The 2017 Revision". ESA.UN.org (custom data acquired via website). United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved 10 September 2017.
  6. ^ a b "Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat, World Population Prospects: The 2010 Revision". un.org. Retrieved 15 April 2018.
  7. ^ http://unstats.un.org/unsd/demographic/products/dyb/dyb2.htm
  8. ^ "World Population Prospects – Population Division – United Nations". Retrieved 2017-07-15.
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m "Africa :: BOTSWANA". CIA The World Factbook.

 This article incorporates public domain material from the CIA World Factbook document "2009 edition".